Iran is still one of the main conduits for illegal drugs trafficking; namely opium, hashish, heroin and morphine base, which originate from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and are destined mainly for markets in Europe and the Persian Gulf and the Middle East region.
All aspects of drug control are covered by the Anti - Narcotics Drug Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1988. It covers the issues of cultivation, production, import, export, possession, consumption, distribution, sale and running premises for the use of drugs. It also creates offences for causing the escape of, or giving protection to drug offenders already subject to prosecution, and destroying or concealing evidence. In November 1997, the Expediency Council amended the 1988 legislation with a view to making the Iranian legislation more responsive to the new aspects of the internal drug problem. In this context, the de facto decriminalization of drug consumers who voluntarily enter into rehabilitation is worthy of notice.
No legal or illegal cultivation of narcotic plants is reported to take place in the Iranian territory in large scales. However, there are various reports published in late 2005 and 2006 on Law Enforcement engagement in locating small opium poppy fields in remote areas of the country. No manufacture of illicit drugs has been reported in Iran in 2006. Recently and to the dramatic increase in the abuse of synthetic drugs, the existence of illegal synthetic drug manufacturing laboratories has been observed.
The principal research purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the Anti-Narcotics Law of Iran and the situation of drugs in Iran and follows this part: Production and Cultivation; Manufacture; Trafficking; Control; Geography of Drugs in Iran.